The Spirit of Xi Jinping Doctrine and Philosophy

The Ancients Said, ‘Truth is the inherent law of objects and is also the reason of things’; the development idea being the truth is a guide for development action, controls all situations, the fundamentals, the directions and the long term, and it is the centralized reflection of the development plan, development direction and the key development idea. If this core development idea of everything is effective, it will be easy to set the target task, and easy to make decisions regarding policy measures.

Theory is the guide of action, certain development practices are guided by certain development idea. Whether the development idea is fundamentally true, is determined by the development results, their success and failure.

  • Xi Jinping (2015)

The above mentioned thought and quote narrates an overall and basic change in the Chinese Doctrine of Governance and a gradual transformation in the Spirit of Chinese Socio-Cultural thought. The Change is particularly visible in the second decade of the 21st Century. This change, though presented as a continuation of the Chinese Socialist Policy since 1978, one can easily see certain and fundamental modifications in the whole doctrine of China, that are taking place; which if compared with the traditional theory and policy of Communist Party of China are really taking the nation and people of China towards a new direction.

To understand the present scenario of China and its aspirations for the Future, one must enter in to the deep and detailed thinking of Premier of China, Xi Jinping. The thoughts of Xi Jinping, his comprehensive approach to the domestic and foreign policy of China have been deemed as an initiation of a new doctrine. It is known as Xi Jinping Thought or just Xiism. The doctrine has been made a crucial part of party policy of Chinese Communist Party, and at the same time, it has also entered the academic realm of Chinese Intelligentsia. Some of the universities in China have started courses in Xi Jinping thought, and many scholars predict that within some years it will be a compulsory course for all the graduates of China.

In year 2012, Xi Jinping became the General Secretary of Communist Party of China; subsequently in 2013, he was elected as the President of People’s Republic of China. Since 2013, Xi Jinping has been ardently active in bringing out a theoretical framework for the futuristic development of China. The theoretical framework as well as a philosophy of Xi Jinping has thus found much momentum in Chinese Policy Doctrines, because of its appeal to the common people as well as the Chinese intellectuals and administrators.

Xi’s meticulous thought and vision can be ascertained in the two-three tomes that have been created out of the addresses, essays, papers as well as university lectures delivered by Jinping. The most important among these are his two volumes named as ‘Governance of China’, which captures a complete picture of Xi’s thought and social philosophy. Along with it, in 2015 China started to implement its 13th Five Year Plan, which is completely based on the 18th CPC Central Committee Doctrine prepared by Xi Jinping and associates. This doctrine is based on the philosophy of new development generated from the thoughts of Xi Jinping. So, since 2014-15 one sees Xi Jinping all over CPC and PRC.

Under the rule of Xi Jinping, China has continued its march on the road of Chinese Socialism and at the same time has drastically opened up in many of its sectors. Xi seems to have arose to hold the reins of China and drive it towards further glories and developments. His rise in China further evolved towards his rise on the global platform as a leader of emerging global power. The Phenomenon of Chinese Rise and its future is being structured on the Xi Jinping Thought, which according to him is not a complete overhaul of Chinese Marxism-Leninism-Maoism but a developed form of same theory for the current and coming times. To understand the world today means to understand the China from its core. And to understand the China today, means to understand the Doctrine of Xi Jinping and its development through the ages.

When one looks deeper in to the Philosophical and Theoretical framework put up in the Governance of China by Xi Jinping, it becomes clear that his starting point is Socialism with Chinese Character. Xi postulates a dual theory of the Chinese socialism, which rests on the various maxims derived both from the theory-policy of the Chinese Communist Party and the Philosophy of the Social History of China. The relation to the social history of china gives him a foundation of all the historical aspirations of China and Chinese People. The historical development of the Chinese Society for more than 5000 years has been taken by him as the fundamental guiding principle for his own development philosophy. These same aspirations of the people have been underlined as the directives for the CPC’s 18th Central Committee. His overall approach to the socialism with Chinese characteristics doesn’t divorce from the core Marxism and Socialism, but cautiously yet firmly he states that the moderate prosperity in all spheres of life is the founding aspiration of all the people, which must be taken in to consideration. A people’s wish for good life and fulfilment of life in economic-cultural-political spheres should be the goal of CPC.

The narration although seems to be going wayward from the Maoist core of China, yet Xi clearly sees history of Modern China in the 20th Century as having three differentiable yet interdependent phases. The first was the period of formulation modern Chinese thought and popular mind, under the leadership of Sun Yat Sen and the likes. Next was the phase of Mao Zedong and Maoism. And since 1978 another period of contemplation with the pragmatic and mature theory of Deng Xiaoping the third phase of Chinese modern thought starts. He doesn’t curtail his thought in one of three periods, but justifies it as a synthesis of all the three phases along with the historical thought of Chinese Aspirations for development, which has evolved out of Chinese Social History.

Another tenet which he posits to be interlinking all these things has been grasped in his quotation ‘Facts are all the things that exist objectively, the truth means their internal relations and to seek the truth means to study facts and their intricacies’. He further narrates that, we must acquire a deep understanding of the matter as it is; see through the surface in to the heart of the matter and discover the intricate link between the matters amidst fragmented phenomenon. One of the most important aspect of his philosophy is emphasis on experience. Xi theorizes that, the theory gives us a framework for the application of it to certain circumstances, yet, we cannot deny the wisdom derived from the experience. The Experience strengthens our conviction. It is not necessary that theory can be applied successfully in all matters, yet the past experiences and the theory, both become our abilities to work for the people. For the sake of the people, we must correct our theories, policies and our mistakes.

Very courageously he states that the basic tenet or the foundation of Marxism is the Universal Truth, but the classical Marxist thinkers and authors blazed a trail to seek and develop truth. According to our own conditions, times and social history we must adopt or blaze certain trails and reform theory to the deeper level.

To completely establish the philosophy of development, Xi Jinping has developed a devout scholarship as well as a manoeuvre to quote and interpret important ancient Confucian philosophers. This must be seen as his ace. To bring the doctrine of development out of the theoretical shackles of Marxism, his understanding of aspirations of people has been grounded in the ancient Chinese philosophy. And thus, vehemently he puts forth that the ‘decrees of state will be followed only if they are in line with the aspirations of the people, they may be ineffective if they are against the aspirations of the people’. It is a directive from a first century A.D. Confucian Philosopher Guang Zhi. Again he quotes an ancient Confucian Philosopher that ‘it is the people who know the decree to be good or bad’. It seems here that Xi Jinping has passionately proposed the base of all policies to be the historical truth about the aspirations of people.

With this basis, he further gets one in the domain of Chinese Dream, which he understands to be the aspirations of Chinese People. A national exhibition was organized by the Communist Party of China in year 2012, under the core lead and direction of Xi Jinping, which was named as ‘Road of Rejuvenation’.

The whole concept of exhibition stands on the ideation by Xi Jinping. The idea behind the Road to Rejuvenation is a deep study of Chinese Past, Present and Future. The aspiration of a god life, fulfilment of life in all spheres have been considered to be the foundation of Chinese aspiration. Various spheres of national life like security, institutions, culture, economy, polity, thinking, literature, foreign relations were detailed with their development in past, then Marxist present and a blueprint for each domain up to year 2049 has been given in this exhibition. This blueprint must be studied as a foundation of Chinese Civilization and its way towards future. The blueprint rests on the road to reach a goal of forging China in to a modern socialist country which will strong, prosperous, democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious with the world. The spirit of Chinese nation that has developed with its history of more than 5000 years is the sole guide of this blueprint. Only this spirit according to Xi Jinping, unites the people of China, pools their strength, and it is the source for the rejuvenation and strengthening of Chinese Nation. The new doctrine of Xi Jinping has tried to come up with understanding of genuine hopes of the people of China from the future.

One must understand the notion of labour and work created by Xi Jinping which somehow transcends the Marxian concept of Labour. According to Xi Jinping, labour and work is a source of wealth as well as happiness. According to such an understanding it becomes the responsibility of CPC to promote such a culture in China where people will be able enough, creative enough and skilful enough to contribute towards a generation of such a work and social culture. Xi has tactfully brought the concept of labour out of the shell of class consciousness.   

Another tenet of new understanding of Xi Jinping is about the role of trade unions. From time to time, he motivates the workers of China as well as the trade unions to be innovative in their work. The process of innovation in China according to him has always been upheld and maintained by the actual workers and artisans; and thus the evolution towards further innovative future will take place among the workers. One can understand here the initiative of Xi Jinping to answer the unsolvable problem posited by Karl Marx. Das Capital comes up with a problem of mysterious evolution of technologies which make the form of future capital incomprehensible. Xi makes the workers, and craftsmen the developers of the technology. Chinese Labour Force thus is asked to be more educated and more trained in modern technological ways.     

Leadership of the party, according to him rests on the understanding the people as true masters of their own destiny, principle position of people, rule of law, expansion of people’s democracy and governance as per the law. And to understand the core of public inspirations and wishes the traditional system of people’s congresses all over China must be united completely with the foundation of CPC.      

A very important contribution of Xi Doctrine must be seen in the demarcation of core principles of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. The political report of 2012 of CPC first came up with the core values of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. These values are, prosperity, democracy, civility, harmony, freedom, equality, justice, rule of law, patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship.

Xi Jinping as a thinker and leader is completely rooted in the historical wisdom of Chinese Nation and especially the Confucian doctrine along with the Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. The rootedness in history has been elaborated in his quote, ‘the waves of Yangtze river from behind drive on those ahead’. The continuity of Chinese Spirit as a soul with more than 5000 years of culture and reminiscence has been taken as a directive for the future of China.

The CPC under the guidance of Xi Jinping held a nationwide series of educational and practical activities under the theme ‘My Chinese Dream’, which was based on exploration of youngsters’ understanding of Socialism with Chinese Characteristic and their own understanding of the history as well as aspirations of people. This activity along with the ‘Road to Rejuvenation’ seem to have provided a grip on national consciousness to CPC as well as Xi Jinping.

      Doubling the GDP seems to have been the economic goal of China for all of its Five Year Plans. Yet the policy of GDP increment has been based in present on the notions of innovation and reforms by Xi Jinping. He has strongly emphasised that the present times call for new innovations in spheres of life, which come with continuous reforms in the national institutions and mind. And through a policy based on reform and innovation, Xi Jinping has stated that by mid of the 21st Century, China will realize its great dream of Renewal of Chinese Nation. For the same, the Young China has been given with four cardinal programme or the four point programme, which is patriotism, hard and genuine work, innovation-creation and dynamic exchange with other nations.  

Since the 1978, CPC has adopted the twin doctrine of reform and opening up. These both have been continued in the present. In 2012, Xi Jinping gave a new direction and meaning to the whole process of reform and opening up, which as he says is a never ending process. It is a deep revolution which must be seen as a tool for China’s self-improvement and extension. Deriving a Confucian notion of wading through river by feeling for the stones, Xi Jinping has tried to come up with a pragmatic programme which gives significance to the opening up of a region and a production as per the stage of its top-level design. For the same, he has strived to inculcate macroscopic policy thinking among the party bureaucrats for the top-level design as well as systematic-coordinated reform in various sectors. This is a systematic project of China, which according to Xi Jinping will bring about a through social transformation on China. And as the Confucian doctrine says, for wading river by feeling the stones, one must root on each stone, Xi wants each and every reform and a step towards opening up to be very stable and deep.

And finally he has linked the continuous process of reform and opening up to the cause of the people, according to which the spirit of people driven by their own experience have a great wisdom in providing pioneering direction to all the reforms and opening up processes.

But at the same, he also narrates the whole disparity in the system and nation. He bluntly puts that China lacks in genuine scientific innovations, industrial sector too is unbalanced and there is a great disparity in regions. The China today according to him is riven with the problems of Formalism, Bureaucratic Stringent, hedonism and extravagance which too must need a serious thought. Thus, his call for the renovation of academic and intellectual interest in the ancient ethical philosophies of China must be seen as a new doctrinal change in the orientation of People’s Republic.

To break out of this disparity, Xi Jinping has introduced ‘two unswerving’ as a modus of further economic and policy doctrine. Among these two, the first is State owned enterprises and sector, which will unswervingly be consolidated and developed by the state. And the second is non-public sector economy which again will be unswervingly encouraged, supported and guided towards development.

Xi Jinping strongly wishes to bring the Chinese National State to the level of consultative democracy, in which all the stake-holders will have a say in policy decisions. This he stipulates to be the sole way out of the current disparities and wants. He further refers to the history of modern China during 1919-1949, during which national consensus and consciousness was one with all the people. He thus has sincerely tried to revive political and social union which was named as ‘Unite Front’. It was a broad and plenary union of various ethnic groups, social strata, political parties, and people from all circles working cohesively for the New Democratic Revolution during the period 1919-1949. The ‘United Front’ is being revived under the broad leadership of Xi Jinping and CPC. It is a union of various political and social forces, groups of ethnic people, social classes, strata, political groups, civil organizations and even the nations, which can be invited on account of shared interests and common goals arising out of shared historical consciousness.

Very interestingly, Xi Jinping also tackles a question of governance of a socialist state and socialist society. According to him, and in which very characteristically or boldly he pours down that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had no practical experience in governance of a state or a socialist state; and even Lenin who after the October Revolution passed away in some years was unable to reflect on the question in depth. Soviet Union tried to work on the question of governance, but unfortunately it failed. He further notes that, only because of our policies of reform and opening up do China has developed an adaptive and reflective socialist governance system. But, compared to the aspirations of our people, he states, our currently sound system too lacks for the future functions and initiatives. For the same, he again gives a reference of ancient neo-Confucian doctrine of three furthers, which are freeing our mind; further freedom and development of people’s productive abilities; and strengthening of social vigour through continuous stimulation to individuals and communities. And although his overall attire becomes quite distinct from the traditional Marxian thought, he comes back to it passionately, by stating that the economic base of the nation determines the superstructure. And hence the Economic Reforms he states, must be drawn in such a manner that the reformist repercussions will be felt in all other sectors.  And in the Economic Sphere, he has come up with a framework of synchronicity in the Invisible Hand which is market and the Visible Hand which is Government. He has called for the development of an open market system which will be based on Uniformity and open yet fair competition. In the things which market forces can regulate easily and efficiently, government must not enter. And the things like deep coordinated reforms and creation of market rules must be done by government with all its wisdom and experience. Scientific macro control and effective governance have been described by him to be intrinsic for the development of open and efficient market system. Xi Jinping has firmly set in the doctrine of Innovation Driven Growth in China. 

He rightly observes the trend of 21st Century, in which the boundaries between the research in the basic and applied sciences and the technological developments have been blurred. The chain of technological and scientific innovations has become flexible, technology upgrading and conversions have become quicker and hence industry upgrading has continued to speed up. Technologies with innovations are transcending the organizational, geological barriers. And hence he posits that 21st Century competition is not between the industrial houses or organizations, but it is between the innovation systems of the world. It has been predicted that the third industrial revolution is and will be driven by Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, for which China must brace itself and become the highest producer of software and hardware technologies for this revolution. His overwhelming stress on the process of innovation with his own scholarship on the history of scientific and technological innovations in China, has made him a forerunner in the field of idea and philosophy of technological innovations. He asserts that the Sciences exist as the paramount human thinking field because of the new discoveries, without the discoveries sciences would die out; and hence, things created become insignificant in front of the hunger for the things to be created. Xi Jinping himself is a master of history of sciences in China and the various systems of scientific thought developed by the Chinese during various historical imperial orders as well as the sciences developed under the impact of western thought and reasoning.

The Governance with the Chinese Character is another one of his theoretical principle, which again springs from the thousands of years of Chinese history, China’s continuous interaction with the world during these times, contributions to the world and what it has learnt from the world. He unabashedly brings forward the age old virtues of Chinese Way of Life and ethics, and has tried to ingrain them among his own party members as well as the people of China. These historical doctrines and philosophies transcend all restrictions and according to him have a lofty strength and applicability still today to be a part of modern Chinese life.  

For the rule of law, divorced from the hard and fast Maoism as well as the tenets of Cultural Revolution, China in 1982 adopted the Constitution and democratic implementation of the constitution. For more than 30 years China has implemented the constitutional rule, yet, Xi Jinping states that China has outgrown itself and the implementation mechanism of Constitution. To make the constitutional rule more comprehensive, Xi has called for the implementation through the ground level peoples’ congresses all over China. He further states that for the deep rooting of Constitutional Rule over China, the local governments of the Chinese People must be made stronger in the form of consultative democracy. The democratic rule of the people must be made stronger with the sharing of decision making process among all the contributors to democratic life. Another important aspect of the Chinese Current constitution has to be underlined here, which incorporates the right to person and property as well as political rights to be the constitutional rights of citizens. The tenets of justice, social-political-judicial fairness, equality have been formed as the core of Chinese Constitutional System and its implementation.

On the cultural front, Xi Jinping has advocated a serious work in the realm of theoretical work as well as the in the domains of cultural and ethical progress. Accordingly he has stressed four points, which are; every nation has basic traditions, different historical developments, cultural accomplishments, basic conditions and hence their development paths are different; Chinese Culture encompasses deepest cultural and ethical pursuits, nourishing people for generations; traditional Chinese culture is the great strength of Chinese nation and its most profound soft power; rooted in Chinese Culture, socialism with Chinese Characteristics represents the aspirations of Chinese people, it suits our times, and facilitates the development of country. It is based on China’s long history and solid reality.

And hence, on account of its characteristic culture and history, China chooses its own distinct path of development. For the same Xi Jinping, asks all the party members, educated people as well as the youngsters to understand Marxism-Leninism-Maoism to the core, along with the proper and deeper understanding of the Chinese Historical Spirit of its own Philosophy, the voice of the generations of thinkers and China’s social history. According to him the spiritual and ethical strength for the realization of Chinese Dream and Rejuvenation of Chinese Nation will originate from the traditional philosophy of ethics of China.

With the administrative independence of the Hong Kong and Macau, worldwide concern was raised regarding the fate of Chinese Sovereignty, which as all said had sadly concentrated in the North-Western China. Under such circumstances, it became pertinent to establish a context to these changes. Xi Jinping has tried to give such a context, where his profound knowledge and understanding of the historical destiny of Chinese People made him come up with the framework of one country, two systems. The fate of mainland China, Macau, Hong Kong are the same and have rose from the same social and cultural roots.     

When one gets to understand the overall the leadership and the doctrine of Xi Jinping it becomes evident that his whole thought springs from the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist worldview as well as from the historical evolution of nation of China which has an unsurpassed history of more than 5000 years. Xi Jinping’s intellectual mould can be attributed to his scholarship over the Confucian, Neo-Confucian and overall historical schools of Chinese Philosophy. The Aspirations of people of China, as he understood do not spring from the class struggle, but from the striving of the whole of populace of China towards a better future and fulfilment of life.

Although his views have become a great synthesis of everything Mao hated and everything Mao loved, one must understand that the thought of Xi is an evolved state of Chinese Social-Cultural and Political vision. It is not divorced from the history. History of this whole new Chinese thought must be understood in a context, the way in which Xi himself understands. This modern thought developed in China in three phases, first belonged to the era of Sun Yat Sen and his republican banner, and it lasted up to the year 1949. The second started with the reign of Mao Zedong, which lasted up to 1976 and can be found to be detailed in his own works like On Contradiction and On Practice. The third phase starts with the era of Deng Xiaoping and his philosophy of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. It has continued up to the first decade of 21st Century. And now in the second decade of 21st Century China is emerging in the era of Xi Jinping doctrine. 

New Development Philosophy of Xi Jinping

            Throughout its modern history, China has adopted a policy which pursues socialist modernization and since the 1980’s onwards, China has specifically continued on the path of socialism with Chinese character. During this period china has adopted various development goals and strategies. The idea and philosophy of development has been changing as well as evolving with the time. The development idea has been deliberated by Xi Jinping, as he says is derived from the core of socialism with Chinese Characteristics and the aspirations of people.

            The 13th Five year Plan and the 18th Communist Party of China’s general committee have been guided under this new doctrine of Xi Jinping. The New Development as a philosophy is a holistic thought of Xi Jinping.

            Most importantly, the New Development Strategy and Philosophy is a culmination or a peak of wisdom derived from the China’s experience in the domains of governance and development throughout its history of more than 5000 years. It has been hailed by many worldwide scholars and researchers to be a great breakthrough in the philosophy of human oriented system management and development.

            As obvious the new development philosophy of Xi Jinping has been described as people centric. His idea of promoting all round human development transcends the traditional idea of human resource and its ability growth. It is about an all-round scientific development of a human being and making him able to see beyond his times and conditions. It is basically about developing man to be a genuine vehicle of the change.

            The first important thing to be noted about the Xi Jinping’s Philosophy is that it is about human being; and while defining human being, he states that it not about an individual, but it is about the individual and singular spirit or the soul of all the human beings of China. The complete population of China with its glorious past, strife, struggle, virtues, thoughts, systems etc. is personified in idea of human being propounded by him.

            This new concept of scientific development has been described as China’s original concept of development, where China has shown an original approach to the idea of development and the path to be taken for it.

            The development strategy of Xi Jinping is divided in five spheres. These five spheres are innovation, coordination, greening, opening-up and sharing. These five spheres become the five modems of various development activities and are intricately involved with each other. These five spheres constitute together the complete idea of scientific development of human being. Thus, they promote one other and they have a unified goal. Xi states that Innovative Development is the impetus of development, coordinated development is the art of development, green development is the mode of development, opening-up development supports the development, sharing and safe development is the goal and guarantee of development.

            According to Xi Jinping, Development is an absolute principle, and hence it must be the unshakeable guide for all activities related to the human beings. He further claims that the philosophy stems from the roots of Marxism as well as the Chinese Philosophical Doctrines.

            The new Development Philosophy of Xi Jinping is built on the development life cycle of every human being. It asks from a continuous investment in the human being at different stages providing basic services, social security and improving human capacity throughout times.

            He takes two main paths to be the functional core of the philosophy. The Human development capacity he proves to be increasing with age for every individual. And thus the investment at the every stage on this age-wise development must also be incremental. But, at the same time, he defines that the human age is limited, but the capacity to invest and making each and every human being more and more developed or building capacity in every human being can be ascertained as unlimited. Thus his main doctrine emerges as ‘life is limited, while innovation is unlimited’. The investment on youngsters and their own capacity to create must increase with time. As the youngsters from 10 years before and youngsters after 10 years should be poles apart in their own development and creative capacities. Same is to be taken for the elders and middle-aged people. The creative capacities, spheres of activities will and must differ but the creativity must be increased. And accordingly the investment in tangible as well as intangible form must also be increased. With increasing creativity and innovations, the investments will also be creative and innovative.

            Human Development life cycle can further be divided in to two dimensions, first is the age dimension (Childhood, Adolescence etc.) while the second is capacity dimension which consists of physical and mental abilities. In a rectangular frame of overall human capital of China, the life span and the capacity form the two diameters of the rectangle. As the increase in one will be and should be corresponded with the increase in second. This is the responsibility of investment.

            And as human being is not an individual person but a social person of the Chinese Nation, it will have both private and public demands. Thus investments too should be in both individual human capital as well as the social capital.

The Innovative Development according to him, is rooted in the philosophical thoughts of Chinese Civilization for thousands of years and runs in the cultural traditions of Chinese Nation. It is the historical gene of China. The Confucian doctrine of all beneficial ways keep pace with the times, asks the practitioners to understand the rules and general trends and keep pace with the times. Furthermore, it asks us to seek truth from the facts. The truth being the idea from which sprung the new way, new innovation; it must be understood to control the direction of our own voyage.  The World changes over time, situation changes to produce new conditions and new problems, and we can see the essence of trends of times by maintaining a continuous state of innovation. We must break free of traditions that are losing their connection with the idea-essence and by continuously studying the idea which is essence of innovations we can go to the forefront of all times.

The Confucian doctrine of old country but with a mission of innovations has been adopted by Xi to be the foundation of his philosophy of Development. But at the same time, he maintains that the modern innovations must come with reference to western technical and scientific ideas, but these innovations must exceed the west. The innovation viewpoint of Capitalism proposed by Schumpeter, which narrates the innovation to be always revolutionary for the production and living systems of people, but it is always a new combination of known elements; has been adopted by Xi Jinping to be the foundation of his doctrine of innovation. He maintains that all innovations which are tied to the truth or the essence of ideas behind the prevalent systems are never destructive but are always constructive.

He further notes that the innovative development of the Chinese man will come with the development of the entrepreneurship qualities in him and a scientific risk taking ability of the entrepreneur.

The definition of innovation created by Xi Jinping is value oriented. He states that the innovation is an ability to create a new value, rather than relying on the existing value; it is always a social value with positive externalities; and it is not just about technological innovation, but an innovation of a whole ecosystem which will facilitate innovations in all spheres of human life.

The next Development sphere, which is coordinated development is again rooted in the ancient Confucian philosophy of ‘doctrine of the mean’. It refers to the controlling of mood and subjective perceptions and to guide it to follow the fundamental principles, objective laws of development and is based on the pillars of balance and harmony. Harmony and Peace of everything is the dictum of mean for all the world under heaven.

And thus the coordinated development promotes harmony in diversity. And thus further it is related to the doctrine of dialectical materialism. With the unity of opposites as the philosophical basis of coordinated development, dialectical materialism considers that contradictions exist throughout the process of human social development, the whole great development process is carried out in the form of interaction. The positive and negative factors of any affair are transformed mutually and further harmonized in the process of interaction. It further incorporates the points from the philosophy of Mao Zedong and Jiang Zemin, named as ‘On the Ten Major Relationships’, which dealt with Chinese Social Revolution and Construction Theory. It was about walking on two legs where theory and practice, research and policy, heavy and light industries, urban and rural, agriculture and technology, science and culture all were deemed to grow hand in hand.

            Thus, on individual and social level Coordinated Innovation requires integrity as well as patience for the evolution of balance and harmony through interaction. It is on this level that the investment is to be done. And for the same, Xi Jinping has proposed a novel point of coordinated development of people on both material as well as spiritual level. This fundamental coordination material and spirit will be the only insurance of further coordinated development.

            The third Green Development as a philosophical doctrine is again rooted in the ancient Chinese philosophy of Taoism, which propounded integration of humans and nature. This integration complies all laws of nature and natural systems; and usage of natural resources with complete self-discipline. This concept strongly divorces itself from the western conception of man vs. nature. It is based on the ancient Chinese wisdom of following heaven and nature, and integrating one’s destiny with the nature and then whole universe.

Again for Green Development, Xi adopts from Marx, his concept of labour. The Labour according Marx is the connection between humans and nature. It is only through labour man is connected with the nature. Thus, according to Marx the labour is the point of unity of the opposites. And hence Marx too posits that too better the labour means to better the connection with the nature. Man must understand the ways of nature to change the nature in a natural perspective. Man must learn to think as an integral of nature.

Thus, finally regarding the green development Xi adheres that China must refer to and finally surpass the doctrine of sustainable development. It requires a green restructuring of the resource use and formation of new green production function. The human-nature integration must thus reach a level where nature will benefit by the activities of humans.

Opening-up Development too stems from the Chinese Ancient Civilizational Wisdom and at the same time from concept of peaceful development put forth by the previous leaders of People’s Republic of China. The civilization with more than 5000 years of history and an independent entity, China has always been in a harmonious relation with the other adjacent and neighbouring civilizations. The civilizational dialogue always has continued throughout history. China has never been a closed in system, as the thoughts, ideas, artefacts and other tangibles as well as intangibles always went out of the boundaries of China and which have drastically contributed towards the foundation of modern world.

Since the ancient period China always advocated Sageliness within and kingliness without. It has always opposed the hegemony. And the same doctrine Xi posits, has been adopted by Mao Zedong and later leaders. China has always supported the doctrine of friendship and mutual respect among the nations and sovereignties.

The most important initiative under Opening-Up development under Xi Jinping has to be considered as China’s great project of New Silk Road and Belt which will if successful connect more than 70 nations in an age-old network of civilizations through land and sea.

Under the tenet of mutual cooperation and friendship with the neighbours and other nations of the world, various frameworks of interaction and multi-lateral relations have been generated in China. Some of them are Chinese Dream, Asian Dream, Asia-Pacific Dream and World Dream.

The doctrine of Shared Development too stems from the Confucian Doctrine of world society. ‘Everyone is kind to each other, everyone is equal, world is shared by the people and it is just like a society of great harmony’, the most ancient quote has been taken by Xi to be the guide of his precept of Shared Development.

Shared Development means to be aware of development, understand development and seek development in the broader perspective. Thus he further defines that the whole mass of world society must be able to jointly share the achievements of reform and development.     

            The Confucian conception of society of great harmony and society with moderate prosperity have been described as the guideline of this development sphere. Confucius imagined an ideal society as follows: “when a supreme political ideal is implemented, the world is shared by people. People of noble morality and capable people are selected, strive for integrity, and are trained for harmony. Therefore, people not only love others as they love their loved ones, but also treat the children of others as their own children. Regarding money and goods, people do not like to cast them aside, but do not always try to possess them. People do not believe in avoiding contributing to the workforce, but do not always seek their own personal gains. Therefore, treacherous plans will not be made, nor will theft, rebellion, and victimization. Thus, people do not need to close their doors. This is called great harmony.”

The Confucian Utopia Xi states has guided us to seek our answers in Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. This, our quest for the Utopia has led China towards various stages in social development. The quest must be understood today in its complete form. And hence he posits that the more society shares the fruits of its achievement and wisdom with other, the more China and the world will move towards the Confucian Ideal State of Harmony and Peaceful Co-existence.

Along with the historical development in China, the notion of Shared Development also comes from the doctrine of Marx. The principles of equality of man, fairness and justice lead towards the sharing of all the resources and means of production among all the sections of society.

For the same, Xi has underlined following requirements of shared development. All people with shared consciousness and values must make significant efforts to jointly develop the economy and society; and jointly create all kinds of wealth. All people should receive the due benefits and jointly share the achievements and prosperity. All people must live in harmony, jointly create a society and help each other.

And the final thought which although rests out of the overall sphere of scientific development of Human Being has been considered vital to the doctrine of new development. It is about the security development, which again as Xi shows rises from the Dynastical History of China. The whole tenet of security and its doctrine has been created on the philosophical school of Mohism, which narrates to manage the event properly, before it occurs. It is about the control over the consequences. The management of any event or a programme must be so managed as no loophole will be left to be exploited for the collapse. And for the same, Mohism advises to remember death during life, extinction during survival, catastrophe during safety and unrest during social stability.

It posits that only by meditating on the dialectical opposites can the society, nation and system be always prepared for the worst possibilities.     

This crux of Xi Jinping doctrine has to be understood for the better understanding of the future steps or rather the direction of future aspirations of nation of China.